By Gabriel D. Dakubo
This booklet examines intensive the proof, scientific purposes and power melanoma signatures within the stream and discusses changes in circulating cell-free nucleic acids, and circulating tumor DNA, in addition to the epigenome, genome, transcriptome (coding and noncoding), proteome (both conventional serum proteins and proteomic profiles) and metabolome. additional, it highlights the scientific functions of circulating tumor cells for every melanoma variety and addresses the rising value of extracellular vesicular contents, together with miRNA, oncogenes and drug resistant elements. As such, it bargains a worthy reference consultant for melanoma researchers, oncologists, clinicians, surgeons, clinical scholars, oncology nurses, diagnostic laboratories, and the pharmaceutical industry.
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Extra resources for Cancer Biomarkers in Body Fluids: Biomarkers in Circulation
1 μg/L). 2 μg/ L were 82 % and 91 %, respectively, for detection of advanced stage disease. The levels also correlated with Breslow tumor depth. 22 μg/L and Breslow thickness >4 mm increased the sensitivity and specificity to 91 % and 95 %, respectively, for detection of secondary spread. Indeed, a large study conducted by Martenson et al. demonstrated the prognostic utility of circulating S100β . S100β was measured by luminescent immunoassay (LIA) method in a large cohort of >1000 patients with stage I–III cutaneous melanoma.
4 Circulating Melanoma Biomarkers 19 progression had elevated levels. Among the responders, S100β levels were constant or declined in 95 % at 4 weeks and 98 % at 8 weeks of therapy. Increased baseline levels of S100β and LDH in patients on autologous tumor cell vaccine were predictive of poor DFS and OS. However, only persistent rise in levels of S100β significantly predicted overall survival. Thus, S100β is a much better predictive biomarker of treatment response than its other utilities .
However, the levels of S100β are elevated in other neoplastic diseases, as well as in liver and renal injury, inflammatory conditions, infections, and also liver metastasis from any primary, which compromises diagnostic specificity. 4 Circulating Melanoma Biomarkers 17 Prognostic Utility of Serum S100β in Melanoma The survival rate of patients with malignant melanoma strongly correlates with S100β serum levels. The observed-to-expected death ratio was significantly increased with elevated serum S100β.