By Cohen P.S., Geffner S.L.
Modern Chemistry: The actual surroundings is an advent to the examine of chemistry, which follows the recent York nation center Curriculum. With this booklet, you could achieve a company knowing of the elemental strategies of chemistry—a base from which you will with a bit of luck continue to additional stories in chemistry, or just to a deeper appreciation of the area of technology during which you reside. even though the theoretical elements of chemistry are emphasised during this booklet, the thoughts are provided at any time when attainable inside of a laboratory-based context and utilized to business tactics and to reports in lifestyle. hence, the writer has sought an invaluable and practical stability one of the theoretical, descriptive, and sensible features of chemistry.
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Extra info for Contemporary Chemistry: The Physical Setting
Heat of vaporization may also be expressed in kilojoules per mole. Freezing, or Solidification The average kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas is sufficiently great to overcome the attractive forces between the molecules. As a gas is cooled, the average kinetic energy of its molecules is decreased. At some point, the average kinetic energy is no longer sufficient to overcome the attractive forces between the molecules. As a result, the gas becomes a liquid—condensation occurs. Continued cooling of the liquid further decreases the kinetic energy of the molecules.
The Calorie content of a food is the quantity of energy that the food supplies to the body when it is consumed. British Thermal Units The British Thermal Unit, or BTU, is another unit of energy. The cooling power of an air conditioner is often given in BTU per hour. One BTU is equal to 1050 joules. PRACTICE The calorie is defined as the heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C. Thus, the specific heat of water in calories/gиC° is exactly 1. 18 How many calories are needed to change the temperature of 10.
The surface tension at the critical temperature is also zero. As the pressure decreases, the boiling point decreases. Eventually, the boiling point line intersects the melting point line (B-D) at point B. 61 kPa). 006 atm, water will boil at 0°C. Under these conditions, we would actually see ice water boiling. All three phases would be present at the same time. These are the conditions at point B on our phase diagram. Point B is called the triple point. The triple point is defined as the conditions of temperature and pressure at which a given substance can exist in all three phases at the same time.