In 1204, the Byzantine Empire was once conquered via troops from western Europe ostensibly playing the Fourth campaign. This was once a highly major occasion for the topics of the Empire, substantially changing the Byzantines' self-image and weakening their kingdom for the later clash with the Ottoman Turks. utilizing the speculation of ethnicity - a relatively contemporary software in regards to the pre-modern period - Gill web page offers clean perception into the overdue Byzantine interval, offering a corrective to nationalistic interpretations of the interval of Frankish rule and extra widely to in general held assumptions of ethnic hostility within the interval. a scientific research of texts in Greek from the interval 1200-1420, from either ends of the social spectrum, is sponsored up by way of an in-depth examine of Frankish rule within the Peloponnese to bare the developments within the improvement of Byzantine identification below the impression of the Franks.
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Additional resources for Being Byzantine: Greek Identity Before the Ottomans, 1200-1420
Ostensibly objective ethnic criteria almost always turn out to be more fluid and negotiable symbols of identity. In the frontier regions where rival ethnicities meet, such criteria can become the battleground of defensive ethnic identification as groups under threat cling, and make appeal, to the supposed heart of their group self-identification. The western conquests of the Byzantine Roman empire constituted an ethnic crisis of this kind, and it was therefore likely that ethnic criteria would emerge into the foreground.
Thus it is typically when a group sees itself as under threat that the cultural features commonly perceived to be ethnic assume greater importance, as a result of the choice of assuming group membership in the face of that threat. Returning to our introduction to ethnicity in its popular sense, it is therefore no coincidence that the popular jargon of ethnicity should have emerged during the period of minority civil rights movements. Thus, when a group which could consider itself ethnic is under threat, it is likely that an ethnic awareness will emerge.
Thus, in the sources at the heart of this study, it will often be at moments of ethnic boundary transgression that appeal is made to the nexus of the ethnic criteria of ‘Roman-ness’. boundaries: us and them Boundaries are essential to the ethnic sense. Although ethnicity has often been conceived as inherent in the mass of specific cultural content – the ethnic criteria – it is the relationship with others that is central. Ethnicity is a subjective belief about one’s own group founded on and shaped by a subjective attitude to the group(s) of which one is not a member.