Download Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics by Hartman, E.F.; Sandia National Laboratories.; United States. PDF

By Hartman, E.F.; Sandia National Laboratories.; United States. Dept. of Energy.; United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

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It has been estimated that nearly 80% of atmospheric CO2 is generated by the man-made fossil fuel burning, of which typically 50% is due to electric power generation. 5 shows the per capita CO2 emissions versus population for several selected countries in the world, where the horizontal axis shows the population and the vertical axis shows the CO2 emission per person (in tons/year). The United States has the highest per capita emission in the world and Canada is very close. Next comes Australia and the European nations, as well as Russia and Japan, where the emissions are typically less than 50% of that of the United States.

In a hydroelectric power system, the water head in the upstream reservoir normally varies widely. It can be shown that with variable head, if a constant speed machine is replaced by a variable speed drive (speed increasing with head), an efficiency improvement of as much as 3% can be obtained. 16 400 MW Scherbius drive for variable-speed hydroelectric generator and pump storage system [16] daytime, the drive runs as a generator feeding power to the 500 kV grid. The DFIG speed varies from sub-synchronous (330 rpm) to super-synchronous mode (390 rpm) as the water head increases.

Then the energy is retrieved by the reverse process. The coil is cooled cryogenically so that dissipation resistance tends toward zero, and then the energy can be stored indefinitely. Either liquid helium (0∘ K) or a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) material in liquid nitrogen (77∘ ) can be used. The cycle efficiency can be higher than 95%. This type of energy storage is very expensive. 5 UC Storage This is an energy storage device like an electrolytic capacitor (EC), but its energy storage density can be as much as 100 times higher than that of EC.

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