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By Roy Porter

This choice of essays explores the advance of the lunatic asylum, and the concept that of confinement for these thought of insane, in several nationwide contexts over the 19th and 20th centuries. major students within the box of scientific historical past have contributed wide basic learn via person case reports within the context of the criminal, social, fiscal, and political events of 13 diverse nations. The publication represents the 1st really foreign background of the psychological medical institution, and is, for this reason, a landmark comparative research within the heritage of medication.

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Similar racial discrimination may be seen in Deacon’s analysis of institutionalization in South Africa. 26 What all these studies point to is the need to specify, in their unique historical context, the distinctive range of factors which gave the psychiatry establishment its point; nor must we forget that these may have changed dramatically over time. 27 Studies of other nations, regions and continents have followed, promoting the same or similar inquiries. 28 This academic development inevitably led to the formulation of the question: what power role did psychiatry and the institutionalization of the insane play in colonial and quasi-imperial contexts?

A Case of ‘Acute Mania’ in Colonial Nigeria’, History of Psychiatry 7 (1996), 91–112; ‘Psychiatry and Colonial Ideology in Nigeria’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71 (1997), 94–111; and ‘Imperial Bedlam’: Institutions of Madness in Colonial Southwest Nigeria (Berkeley, 1999). R. Hunter and I. Macalpine, Psychiatry for the Poor, 1851. Colney Hatch Asylum, Friern Hospital 1973: A Medical and Social History (London, 1974); C. MacKenzie, Psychiatry for the Rich: A History of Ticehurst Private Asylum, 1792–1917 (London and New York, 1993).

In particular, using archival sources, he examines two different types of institutions: Matsuzawa Hospital in a Tokyo suburb, which was (and still is) a University-affiliated public psychiatric hospital with 1,000 beds; and Iwakura Hospital, a for-profit enterprise situated outside Kyoto, with its numerous satellite boarding-out houses for the insane. As well as adopting different therapeutic and managerial strategies, those two institutions catered for patients from different classes or social groups who came to the asylums through different paths and with different rationales: Matsuzawa pursued highly Westernized regimens on poorer patients from the metropolis who had usually been committed to the hospital by the police, while Iwakura provided self-consciously eclectic treatment for those from wealthier families from all over the country who sought refuge in the asylum.

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