Download Das Phänomen Leben: Grundfragen der Theoretischen Biologie by Heinz Penzlin PDF

By Heinz Penzlin

Der renommierte Tierphysiologe Heinz Penzlin behandelt in diesem Buch, das hier in zweiter Auflage vorgelegt wird, in systematischer und übersichtlicher shape die naturwissenschaftlichen Grundprinzipien, die alleLebewesen – trotz ihrer enormen Formenvielfalt – gleichermaßen kennzeichnen. Das Buch ist keine Biophilosophie, sondern richtet sich an alle, die an den wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen des Phänomens „Leben“ aus heutiger Sicht interessiert sind. „Leben“ wird als die Leistung einzigartiger offener Systeme betrachtet, die in der Lage sind, ihre interne teleonome Organisation auf der Grundlage gespeicherter und abrufbarer genetischer Informationen selbsttätig aufrechtzuerhalten und an die nächste new release weiterzugeben.

Die Neuauflage ist um sechs Kapitel (Cytoskelett, Cytokinese, Sexualität, Evolutionismus, Leben auf anderen Planeten, Altern und Tod) erweitert und der gesamte textual content durchgesehen und aktualisiert worden.

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Extra resources for Das Phänomen Leben: Grundfragen der Theoretischen Biologie

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12 Teleonomie und Kybernetik 41 pe in vivo exakt wider, ohne dass eine Rückmeldung von den Muskeln eintreffen kann (Truman 1978, S. 151–173). Solche Beispiele sind keineswegs auf Insekten oder niedere Tiere beschränkt. Man findet sie genauso bei Primaten, bei denen viele der oft stark differenzierten Bewegungskoordinationen unabhängig von jeder Steuerung über äußere und innere Rezeptoren ablaufen (Taub et al. 1965, S. 593–594). In diesem Zusammenhang sind auch die sog. Leerlaufreaktionen interessant.

Ebenso käme man bei der Betrachtung eines komplizierten Organismus mit all seinen sehr zweckdienlichen Organen nicht um den Schluss herum, dass er das Werk eines Schöpfers sei. Dieses „design argument“ war ein wesentlicher Punkt in der Kritik an DARWIN durch die „viktorianischen“ Physiker, darunter so illustre Namen wie der Astronom John H ER SCHEL , der Universalgelehrte William W HEWELL , der Physiker William T HOMSON u. a. Das Prinzip Zufall hatte in der physikalischen Gesetzlichkeit keinen Platz.

Leben“ ist überhaupt nicht auf einen Faktor – sei er nun physischer oder psychischer Natur – zurückführbar. Es ist immer die Leistung eines Systems besonderer Art. Es ist, wie in diesem Buch weiter auszuführen sein wird, die Leistung organisierter Materie. Leben geht nicht der Organisation voraus, wie Herbert S PENCER vermutete, sondern ist Organisation. Jeder Organismus ist eine Singularität. Er existiert als selbständige Einheit und unterscheidet sich in spezifischer Weise von allem, was uns in der anorganischen Natur entgegentritt, und das nicht nur graduell aufgrund eines hohen Komplexitätsgrads, sondern prinzipiell.

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