By Bruce Molitoris
ICU nephrology is speedily rising as a space of curiosity in nephrology. Nephrologists have continually participated within the care of significantly in poor health sufferers, together with people with electrolyte and acid-base issues, quantity issues, hypertensive trouble, and acute renal failure. elevated popularity of the overlap among severe care and nephrology, and up to date advances within the knowing of acute renal failure and the applying of renal substitute remedies, have introduced elevated cognizance to the nephrologist's function within the ICU. This instruction manual is written to supply an procedure for the ''student'' of nephrology, at any point of teaching, with reference to significantly sick sufferers. this article presents the data essential to supply deal with the nephrology sufferer within the ICU, highlighting body structure and pathophysiology to complement the scientific, diagnostic and healing info.
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Additional resources for Critical Care Nephrology
Initial antibiotic therapy should include broad-spectrum coverage of Gram-positive organisms and double antibiotic coverage of Gram-negative organisms until a source can be identified. Once the source is identified, coverage can be targeted to the cultured organism or the clinical situation. If no organism is isolated, initial broad-spectrum antibiotics can be continued as long as the patient is improving. Immediate institution of antibiotic therapy is critical since there is a 10%–15% higher mortality rate in patients who are not given treatment promptly .
In these patients, a fluid challenge of 100–250 mL of normal saline should be given to try and improve cardiac output. Inotropic agents should be administered to any patient who does not respond to fluids or has pulmonary congestion. Dobutamine is primarily a β1-adrenergic agonist, but is also a weak β2- and α-adrenergic stimulator, and can improve myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Dobutamine is the drug of choice when SBP is >80 mm Hg, but can induce hypotension as a result of the β2 effect, so should either not be used when blood pressure is <80 mm Hg or should be used in conjunction with another vasopressor.
However, in the setting of sepsis, where there is often significant capillary leak, the benefit from colloids may be lost. Colloids also have several potential side effects that make them less attractive (see Table 4), and most studies have not found a benefit for colloids over crystalloids. Given the available data and potential risks of colloid solutions, crystalloids remain the cornerstone of volume resuscitation, although patients with profound volume deficits may benefit from colloid solutions in addition to crystalloids to accelerate restoration of circulating volume.