By Pontus Braunerhjelm, Maryann P. Feldman
Clusters - nearby concentrations of comparable enterprises and firms - are obvious as a tremendous portion of fiscal progress and innovation. yet there's little realizing of the way clusters come into lifestyles, and little counsel supplied at the position of guidelines in selling this. Cluster Genesis specializes in those early origins of clusters.
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Extra info for Cluster Genesis: Technology-Based Industrial Development
Already, in the mid-1920s, 30 percent of the industry’s total revenues were being generated by exports (North 1926). It was in the mid-1920s, too, according to Koszarski (1990) that the term ‘Hollywood’ started to be used in its generic sense to designate the motion-picture industry at large. 1. Employment in motion-picture production, USA, California, and New York, 1921–37 Year USA California New York Employment Establishments Employment Establishments Employment Establishments 1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 10,659 9,904 11,518 16,013 19,602 14,839 19,037 27,592 34,624 127 97 132 142 142 140 92 129 83 5,329 7,137 NA 12,852 NA 11,182 16,417 23,278 30,408 68 48 72 78 NA 71 39 75 35 3,922 1,734 NA 1,907 NA 2,594 1,748 3,240 2,883 20 16 18 21 NA 26 24 24 21 Source : US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Biennial Census of Manufactures (NA ¼ not available).
For another, relevant information on the business activities of early ﬁlm-production companies is hard to ﬁnd, and most especially, the kind of information that sheds light on the speciﬁcs of the industry as a productive agglomeration. Inevitably, then, there are troubling gaps in the empirical record and the explanatory reading that follows falls occasionally onto fragile ground. With these provisos in mind, this chapter attempts to show how Hollywood evolved over the ﬁrst three decades of the twentieth century from a loose and rather chaotic collection of motion-picture shooting activities 17 Origins of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry into a dense interlocking system of production companies, anchored in geographic space by its own virtuous circle of endogenous development.
The information/computer/electronics (ICE) and, to a far lesser degree, biomedical technologies have formed the core of the venture capitalﬁnanced start-up economy. For the last ﬁve decades, the ICE technologies have experienced exponential rates of improvement in cost and 38 The Coevolution of Technologies and Institutions functionality combined with extremely large intellectual property content. Also, the ICE technologies have frequently experienced (or, alternatively, entrepreneurs have created) moments when entry barriers have been lowered sufﬁciently to allow nimble well-placed entrepreneurs to enter new market niches.