By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Clouds impact the weather of the Earth, and they're a big consider the elements. for this reason, their radiative homes has to be understood in nice aspect. This e-book summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical houses, for instance their skill to take in, transmit, and replicate gentle, which depends upon the clouds' geometrical and microphysical features corresponding to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and constructions. moreover, difficulties regarding the picture move via clouds and cloud distant sensing are addressed during this booklet in nice detail.This e-book can function a tremendous introductory textual content in cloud optics for college students; it will probably even be a big resource of data on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers.All uncomplicated principles of optics as relating to scattering of sunshine in clouds (e.g. Mie thought and radiative move) are thought of in a self constant manner. hence, the ebook can be an invaluable textbook to novices to the sector.
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Additional resources for Cloud Optics
Even in this most simple case twodimensional distribution functions f (D, L) should be used. Note that f (D, L) can be approximately reduced to one-dimensional functions f (D) due to the existence of empirical relationships between the length of crystals and their diameter in natural clouds (Auer and Veal, 1970). 48 L otherwise. 474 at ζ ∈ [5 μm, 1500 μm]. Similar relationships can be obtained for other shapes (Mitchell and Arnott, 1994). It should be pointed out, however, that the whole concept of a single distribution function breaks down for ice clouds.
Clouds in the last column are very thick (τ ≈ 25 − 400). 0 km just one single cloud layer is usually smaller (depending on the region and latitude) than of having a muti-layered (two or more layers) cloud system. In particular, it was found that the frequency of occurrence of single cloud layers over the territory of the former Soviet Union is only 30–50% (without account for high-level clouds above 6 km). The typical cloudiness structure at a spring day over Cabauw (Netherlands) is shown in Fig.
Cs clouds give an impression of a white or slightly bluish semi-transparent layers. They can have a great horizontal extent and cover all sky above the observer. 0 km. 4 km ). The frequency of appearance of such clouds is lower than that of Ci and Cs. Cloud top heights for high-level clouds are typically above 12–14 km in the tropics, 9 km in middle altitudes and 8 km near poles. They can penetrate into the stratosphere (10–15% cases). In most cases, the cloud top height is situated in the 2–3 km layer below the tropopause.