By Lucy Taylor
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Extra info for Citizenship, Participation and Democracy: Changing Dynamics in Chile and Argentina
30 According to the military, there is a need to refound society on the basis of a reasserted notion of national destiny and tradition, eliminating 'foreign' ideas which threaten the Chilean identity. Politicians are, unsurprisingly, conspicuous for their absence in the government's documents, indeed Pinochet aimed to: build Chile into a society ruled by experts, in which the voices of those who know, takes precedence over political emblems, and a society of real participation, in which the voice of the organised populace is heard without party political distortions and without the petty wranglings which impoverish it.
The founding proposal of military intervention places emphasis on the need for moral guidance and the role of the military state in reasserting national greatness and Argentine values. 38 The battle here was not so much an ideological one, rather it was a struggle to be waged on the terrain of nationalism and around a concept of national culture; revolutionary Peronism was denounced not as an ideology per se but because it threatened the national way of life which was inherently capitalist. The military's concept of the state is as the seat of strong leadership and authoritarian rule, and reflects more closely the elite model of citizenship than the neo-liberal.
Moreover, each 'class' had several strong and wellestablished parties to represent their interests. 5 It was not that Chile did not suffer from the turmoil and economic instability which led its neighbours towards armed insurrection and military rule. 6 Yet these dramatic shifts occurred with democratic changes of power and power-holders. This is a testament to faith in democracy and the perceived dignity and equality of the political rights of citizenship. Models of Citizenship in Context 33 While the economic and ideological models employed by each of these governments (centre-left coalition, right-wing populist, traditional right, Christian Democrat, Socialist) were evidently diverse, the model of citizenship which they proffered was similar.