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12 Principle of the Electron Ring Accelerator (ERA) Laser accelerators hold out the promise of reaching high energies with a technology which is new to accelerator physicists. Plasma media can be used to lower the velocity of the laser wave. It is also worthwhile to mention that extensions of conventional techniques are also studied extensively for very high energy electron linacs. 2. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF ACCELERATING STRUCTURES 2 . 1 Transit time factor Consider a series of accelerating gaps as in the Alvarez structure (Fig.

22), which are focusing at the gap entrance and defocusing at the end. In an electrostatic accelerator where the field is constant this gives a global focusing effect since the particle having more energy at the end of the gap makes the defocusing effect smaller. In an RF accelerator the behaviour is different. From the phase stability requirement (φs < 0) it appears that the field increases with time during the passage of the particle. Hence the defocusing force becomes larger than the focusing one resulting in a transverse instability as the particle may strike the drift tubes.

Fig. 8 Nose-cone structure Fig. 9 Side-coupled structure 1 . 4 Induction linac Resonant structures as described previously cannot handle very high beam currents. The reason is that the beam induces a voltage proportional to the circulating current and with a phase opposite to that of the RF accelerating voltage. This effect known as "beam loading" disturbs the beam characteristics and can even destroy the beam by some instability mechanism. A cure for such an effect in the case of very high currents consists of producing an accelerating field with a very low Q resonator.

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