By Yu, Cheng-Ching
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This e-book comprises standart program circuits and circuits designed through the writer
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Extra resources for Autotuning of PID Controllers [electronic resource]: A Relay Feedback Approach
Finally, two types of PID tuning are presented. One is the familiar Ziegler–Nichols type of tuning, in which the controller settings are expressed explicitly in terms of ultimate gain and ultimate period. One should recognize that no single tuning rule works well for all systems. g. time-constant- or dead-timedominant process, or in between) and apply an appropriate tuning rule. The IMC tunings are also given for first-order type processes. This can be useful if a loworder process model becomes available.
For highly nonlinear processes, these changes are typically as small as 10–3 to 10–6 % of the full range . Such small changes would only be feasible using a mathematical model. Trying to obtain reliable steady state gains from plant data is usually impractical. The dead time D in the transfer function can be easily read off from the initial part of the relay feedback test. 1). For the FOPDT system, it is simply the time to reach the peak amplitude in a half period, as will be shown in Chapter 4.
We intend to extract some useful information from the “shape” of the relay response. 1 Shapes of Relay Response The Åström and Hägglund  relay feedback test is a useful tool in identification because it identifies two important parameters, ultimate gain and ultimate frequency, for controller tuning. Typically, the Ziegler–Nichols type of tuning rule is applied because K u and Pu are the information required to set PID controller parameters. Unfortunately, satisfactory performance is not always guaranteed because no single tuning rule works well for the entire dead time D to time constant ratio D / even for an FOPDT process.