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By Samuel R. Williamson

A textual content at the coming of global conflict I when it comes to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. a part of a chain of in particular commissioned titles targeting major and infrequently arguable occasions and issues of global historical past within the current century.

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Each failure to co-opt the Croats made the task of governing more difficult. Each repressive step increased tension and sometimes provoked terrorist attacks upon government officials. South Slav propaganda found more and more supporters. The Hungarian policies provided a steady stream of recruits for the Yugo-Slav cause. 27 Of the eleven nationalities, the German-Austrians and the Magyars were obviously dominant politically. Separately they controlled the political structure in the two halves of the monarchy.

To be sure, as we saw in Chapter I, the attitudes of the elite played a crucial role in shaping the views of the policy-makers themselves; the transformation of their opinions from moderate optimism to mounting despair is a major theme of this study. But these officials had always to be concerned with what the 'public' would tolerate. 37 DOMESTIC CONTEXT OF HABSBURG FOREIGN POLICY 31 Nationality issues as reflected in parliamentary debates could not be ignored. Nor could officials dismiss the hardships imposed by conscription, reservists serving on active military duty and increased financial burdens upon the monarchy's population.

Faced with continuous strife between the German and Czech factions, he resorted to Paragraph 14 of the Basic Law of Representation. This Austrian constitutional device permitted virtual emergency rule by the prime minister until the Reichsrat (Deputies and Lords) could retroactively ratify his decisions. Rule by Paragraph 14 became the easy way out for Stiirgkh. Finally, in March 1914 he adjourned the parliamentary bodies altogether. Nevertheless, if in session, members of both houses of the Reichsrat asked questions about military matters, especially in the tense moments o{December 1912.

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