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By C. J. Ball and G. E. Bacon (Auth.)

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4). For a grating with 15,000 lines per inch and for a wavelength of 500 nm, d = 3·3λ, so the maximum order of diffraction that can be observed is m = 3. It is not surprising, therefore, that we are unable to infer in great detail the characteristics of a single slit from observations of the diffraction pattern. 8. =o j3=0 r 2π π π/2 3π 4π 5π 3 π /2 F I G . 12. Principal m a x i m a in Fraunhofer intensity distribution for a diffraction grating of ten lines with d = 3a. The angular distribution of intensity for a grating with ten lines for which d = 3a is shown in Fig.

For instance, for a rectangular aperture of size a x b , if we divide the aperture into strips parallel to, say, the side of length a, then in any direction making an angle (π/2 —f^) with the length of the strips, the amplitude of the resultant wavelet from each strip will be dA = const. sin (na sin θ*/λ) . Ω n , na sin θxjλ Two-dimensional Diffraction 55 each strip acting, for diffraction in a plane containing its length, as a single slit of width equal to its length. The phase of the resultant will be the phase of the centre element.

The other integrals can be treated similarly. The first two will never be appreciable, whilst the third will be large at an angle such that k sin 0 = —m/d. The incident beam will therefore be split by the grating into two beams, _1 making angles of 0 = ± s i n (m/kd) with the incident beam direction. At these angles Ae = \Am. At other angles the intensity of diffraction will be negligible. This is illustrated in Fig. 21. One-dimensional Diffraction F I G . 21. Diffraction by a sinusoidal grating.

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