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By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

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31) and (32), as shown in Fig. 19(a) for two different values of the local tunneling conductance. The current increment 61(x,y) and, hence, the voltage signal 16V(x,y)l is seen to increase with increasing local tunneling conductance. It is the latter junction property that is imaged by LTSEM at this bias point. Next we turn to a bias point in the gap regime ( V % 2A/e for a symmetric junction), as shown in Fig. 19(b) for two different values of the local energy gap. Here the voltage signal is dominated by the superconducting energy gap and increases with increasing local gap value, such that the local gap value is imaged by LTSEM at this bias point.

1974). For simplicity, these authors assumed a one-dimensional geometry where the transverse sample dimension is small compared to the thermal healing length. Their experiments essentially confirmed the details of their theoretical analysis, including the highly nonlinear IVC associated with the generation of a hotspot. Subsequent experiments on wider films (Huebener, 1975) have shown that the onedimensional model also applies reasonably well to geometries that are not strictly one-dimensional any more.

During this scanning time the critical current was measured electronically about 500 times. The critical current is seen to be strongly reduced due to the beam irradiation at two locations close to both ends of the junction indicating superconducting microshorts at these locations. The maximum beam-induced signal )6Zc(y)lis about 30% of the critical current in the unperturbed sample. 25. Image of a superconducting short in a tunnel junction showing the IVC presented in Fig. 24. (a) Beam-induced change -61,(y) of the critical current versus the (longitudinal) y-coordinate.

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