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The total intensity distribution is experimentally plotted by simply moving the detector transversely across the beam. This is a useful procedure in aligning the instrument. A suitable Stern-Gerlach peak separation is about 3 undeflected beam widths or 6a for a good signal-tonoise ratio of the refocused atoms. The deflecting magnets must be designed so that they are capable of providing an intensity distribution of this general character, The observed signal in a beam experiment is the change in detector current due to the induced transitions.

A substantial simplification can be made in the calculaticn without serious discrepancies in the results if it is assumed that the dipole moment interacts with a rotating field rather than an oscillating field. Instead of Eq. (61), write x'(t)= -I . (H cos wti - H sin w t j ) , (62) w where the z-axis is chosen along Hot the uniform C field, and H rotates with angular velocity w in the x,y-plane. We have chosen the special case where the radiation field has a z-component equal to zero. 571 (65) where v is the velocity of the atoms, and 1 is the length of the oscillating field traversed by the atoms.

NBS-I1 atomic beam frequency standard. The two devices are designated (NBS-11) and (NBS-I) respectively. They are shown in Figs. 20 and 21; their properties are given in the Appendix. ATOMIC BEAM FREQUENCY STANDARDS 49 A . , ( F = 4, mF = &l)++ ( F = 3, mF = f l ) . The frequencies for these transitions are given by Eq. 6mpgo, (78) where Y O is the hyperfine structure separation in zero field. The quantities goin oersteds. The low frequency transitions for which AF = 0, and AmF = f l are also used to measure the magnitude of the field and, in addition, the uniformity of the field.

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