By Florian Cajori

Defined even at the present time as "unsurpassed," this heritage of mathematical notation stretching again to the Babylonians and Egyptians is without doubt one of the such a lot accomplished written. In remarkable volumes-first released in 1928-9-distinguished mathematician Florian Cajori exhibits the beginning, evolution, and dissemination of every image and the contest it confronted in its upward thrust to reputation or fall into obscurity. Illustrated with greater than 100 diagrams and figures, this "mirror of previous and current stipulations in arithmetic" will provide scholars and historians a complete new appreciation for "1 + 1 = 2. Swiss-American writer, educator, and mathematician FLORIAN CAJORI (1859-1930) used to be one of many world's such a lot extraordinary mathematical historians. Appointed to a especially created chair within the heritage of arithmetic on the college of California, Berkeley, he additionally wrote An creation to the speculation of Equations, A historical past of effortless arithmetic, and The Chequered profession of Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler.

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Harper Memorial Library, University of Chicago. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS 28 kept by George Washington himself, now preserved in the Omaha Public Library, contains the S frequently. The earliest date in the ledger is January The dollar 1, mark 1799. " for dollars, dimes, cents, mills, respectively. With him, the dollar mark has the modern form except that the two strokes are not vertical on the page, but slanting like a solidus. The same form is found in an anonymous publication, "The Columbian Arithmetician.

3. A. G. Kastner, Anfangsgrunde der Arithmetik,* Geometrie und Trigonometrie (Gottingen, 1758), p. 267, 268. 8 A. G. Kastner, Anfangsgrunde der Analysis endlicher Grossen (Gottingen, 1760), p. 107, 117, 211, 228, 254, 296, 326, 327, 413, 432. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS 12 and ir=jR, then 7r=tan sM-ws+P^O. 14159 a , coefficient in the cubic then x is a general ex- a particular case and =3 in another, then again ir is the coefficient of a term in an equation, and an exponent of x. Evidently w was still serving him in the role of a Kastner1 regularly regeneral-utility symbol.

Des sciences, anne*e 1721 (Paris, 1723), Memoires, p. 48. 2 Euler in "De summis serierum reciprocarum," Comm. Acad. , Vol. VII (1734-35), p. 123 ff. See von Braunmuhl, Vorlesungen uber Geschichte der Trigonometrie, Vol. II (Leipzig, 1903), p. 110. 3 Charles Tweedie's James Stirling (Oxford, 1922), p. 179, 180, 185, 188. 4 L. Euler, Mechanica sive motus scientia analyiice exposita, Vol. I (Petrograd, 1736), p. 119, 123; Vol. II, p. 70, 80. Comm. Acad. Petr. ad annum 1737, IX (1744), p. 165. See A.