By Gisèle Pickering, Stephen Gibson
This booklet specializes in the reciprocal interactions among discomfort, emotion and cognition. overseas specialists file on their findings, scientific event and the newest literature at the complicated family members among those 3 domain names. medical, mental, behavioral and neuroimaging methods converge in the direction of assisting sufferers struggling with soreness, cognitive impairment or emotional distress.
Beyond the pathophysiological features of ache, problems encountered with sufferers are analyzed and techniques are proposed to optimize therapy, doctor-patient relationships, and sufferer well-being.
This paintings will attract a wide readership, from scientific clinical practitioners to psychologists, nurses and ache specialists.
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Additional info for Pain, Emotion and Cognition: A Complex Nexus
A “hypochondria” dimension with its associated anxious concerns and focus on painful sensations often leads to repeated requests for additional consultations or investigations. Anxiety can also be manifested primarily in the form of physical pain states: tightness, constriction, or atypical chest pain, the latter especially during panic attacks (Huffman and Pollack 2003). In fact, the majority of patients with panic attacks report pain symptoms of one type or another (Schmidt et al. 2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often considered as an anxiety disorder.
2010) introduces distraction as a confounding factor if pain is tested during the task and cognitive fatigue if pain is tested after the task. While it could be argued that counterirritation, stress, and distraction analgesia all share a common motivational basis in the sense that they all reflect a competition between pain and other sources of motivation, most experimental paradigms used in humans do not match the purely emotional forms of fear-induced analgesia observed in animals, such as that instigated by exposure to a predator.
Similarly, the results of a recent study showed that the stress-related release of endogenous opioids secondarily induces a longlasting and latent pain hypersensitivity mediated by NMDA receptors (Le Roy et al. 2011). Thus, sustained stress may predispose individuals to develop chronic pain when exposed to injury, which could partially explain the important comorbidity between stress, chronic pain, and anxio-depressive symptoms observed in humans. Emotions thus appear to have profound influences on spinal nociceptive processing.