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By Richard H. Langley, John T. Moore

Seize biochemistry fundamentals, practice the technology, and ace your exams

Are you baffled through biochemistry? if this is the case here's the excellent news ? you don't need to remain that means! exhibits you the way to get a deal with on biochemistry, observe the technological know-how, increase your grades, and get ready your self to ace any standardized test.

This pleasant, unintimidating consultant offers an outline of the fabric lined in a standard college-level biochemistry path and makes the topic effortless to appreciate and obtainable to all people. From mobile ultrastructure and carbohydrates to amino acids, proteins, and supramolecular constitution, you'll establish biochemical buildings and reactions, and ship your grades soaring.

Newest biology, biochemistry, chemistry, and medical discoveries
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From water biochemistry to protein synthesis, grants the very important info, transparent reasons, and demanding insights you must elevate your knowing and increase your functionality on any biochemistry try out.

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7), the predominant species of an amino acid is negatively charged and migrates toward the anode. The isoelectric point (pI) of an amino acid is the pH at which the molecule has an average net charge of zero and therefore does not migrate in an electric field. The pI is calculated by averaging the pKЈ values for the two functional groups that react as the zwitterion becomes alternately a monovalent cation or a monovalent anion. , glycine and alanine, exist as zwitterions. 7) is protonated to yield an ammonium group (—NHϩ 4 ).

0] is the pI. Thus, pI is the arithmetic mean of pK1Ј and pKЈ2 values and the inflection point between the two segments of the titration profile. The buffering capacities of weak acids and weak bases are maximal at their pKЈ values. 7 (Figure 3-6). Neither these amino acids, nor the α-amino or α-carboxyl groups of other amino acids (which have similar pKЈ values) have significant buffering capacity in the neutral (physiological) pH range. 3). The pK and pI values of selected amino acids are listed in Table 3-2.

A number of processes in living systems result in and depend on the transfer of electrons (oxidation and reduction), and thus their thermodynamic properties are related to their electrical properties and measurement of these electrical properties. Oxidation is the loss of electrons by an atom, ion or hydride (HϪ) ion by a molecule. Reduction is the gain of electrons by an atom, ion or proton (Hϩ) ion by a molecule. In a chemical reaction the transfer of one hydride ion results in the transfer of two electrons; HϪ Hϩ ϩ 2eϪ.

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