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By Diane Larsen-Freeman

Knowing how humans study and fail to profit moment and overseas languages is more and more regarded as a serious social and psycholinguistic factor. moment languages are extremely important to various teams of individuals, starting from refugees to varsity scholars dealing with overseas language standards. This booklet presents a synthesis of empirical findings on moment and overseas language studying by means of young children and adults, emphasising the layout and execution of acceptable research.

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Who have survived courses in which early versions of this text were used; Joy Wallens for her tireless dedication to the preparation of the manuscript; and last, but not least, to our family members, Elliott, Brent and Gavin Freeman, and Charlene Sato, for putting up with our excuses for too long. To all these folks, we offer heartfelt thanks. Diane Larsen-Freeman School for International Training Michael H. Long University of Hawaii 30 31 Acknowledgements We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Holt, Rinehart and Winston for a diagnostic passage from Manual of American English Pronunciation by Clifford Prator and Betty Wallace Robinett; JHWPESL for a table (Experimental studies of the effect of input modification on comprehension) from 'The effects of linguistic simplifications and elaborative modifications on L2 comprehension' by K.

115). From the preceding discussion of paradigm attributes, it can be seen that the longitudinal or cross-sectional approach should not be associated exclusively with either paradigm. This is not to say that one's paradigmatic allegiance is unimportant in designing a methodology; nor is it to deny that certain methodologies are usually associated with specific paradigms. The point is that what is important for researchers is not the choice of a priori paradigms or even methodologies, but rather to be clear on what the purpose of the study is and to match that purpose with the attributes most likely to accomplish it.

We will deal with a number of these in Chapter 6. Even the term 'second language' is not as straightforward as it first seems, as sometimes it refers to a language which is not chronologically the second. SLA really has come to mean the acquisition of any language(s) other than one's native language. Thus, we have 'second' language acquisition studies dealing with the acquisition of third and fourth languages, and we even have 'second' language acquisition case studies of simultaneous bilingualism which in reality are studies of children engaged in learning two first languages.

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