By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the elemental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the results of those diversified techniques to phrases in English. He explains some of the ways that phrases are concerning each other, and indicates how the heritage of the English language has affected note constitution. issues comprise: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a observe and its components (roots and affixes); a note and its types (inflection); a be aware and its kinfolk (derivation); compound phrases; note constitution; productiveness; and the old assets of English observe formation.
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Additional resources for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
Mary is giving a lecture today. d. g. Mary has given a lecture today. The lecture is always given by Mary. e. g. Mary may give a lecture. Mary wants to give a lecture. Mary and John give a lecture every year. gives gave giving given give The contrast between present at (28a) and past at (28b) is a contrast of tense. The other dimensions of contrast manifested in (28a) are person (third person versus the rest) and number (singular versus plural, just as for nouns and pronouns). However, because only one word form (gives) exhibits these contrasts, they play a much smaller inﬂectional role in modern English verbs than in Old English verbs, as we shall see in Chapter 9.
Exercises 1. In each of the following groups of word forms, identify those that are (or can be, according to context) forms of the same lexeme: (a) woman, woman’s, women, womanly, girl (b) greenish, greener, green, greens (c) written, wrote, writer, rewrites, writing. 2. What word form represents each of the following grammatical words? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) the plural of the noun the plural of the noun the plural of the noun the past tense of the verb the past tense of the verb the past tense of the verb ‘rest horizontally’ 02 pages 001-152 18/10/01 3:43 pm Page 43 A WORD AND ITS FORMS : INFLECTION 43 (g) the past tense of the verb ‘tell untruths’ (h) the third person singular past of the verb (i) the perfect participle of the verb (j) the perfect participle of the verb (k) the perfect participle of the verb (l) the perfect participle of the verb (m) the perfect participle of the verb (n) the accusative of the pronoun (o) the accusative of the pronoun 3.
Can we not classify -s, -en, -ae and -i as all allomorphs of a single ‘plural’ morpheme? Should we not also recognise a further allomorph that we might call ‘vowel change’, to accommodate men and teeth, which lack a sufﬁx? Admittedly, these allomorphs are quite unlike 02 pages 001-152 18/10/01 3:43 pm Page 33 A WORD AND ITS FORMS : INFLECTION 33 each other in pronunciation – but if allomorphs are allowed to be differ somewhat, why cannot we allow them to be differ considerably? At what point, if any, does phonological divergence become too great?