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Extra info for Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy
Bohr, Phil. Mag. 3 0 (1915) 581. 75 W. B. Lewis and C. E. Wynn-Williams, Proc. R o y . Soc. (Londen) A 1 3 6 (1932) 349. 76 W. H. Bragg, Studies in Radioactivity (Macmillan and C o . , L o n d o n , 1912). 77 M. G. H o l l o w a y and M. S. Livingston, Phys. Rev. 5 4 (1938) 18. 78 G. Stetter and W. Jentschke, Z. Physik 36 (1935) 4 4 1 . 79 H . Moulin, A n n . Chim. et Phys. 21 (1910) 550. C. Wingate, W. Gross and G. Failla, Phys. Rev. 105 (1957) 929. 33 INTERACTION OF α-PARTICLES CH. I energy w to form an ion pair is nearly independent of the particle velocity.
L. Goldwasser and F. S. Mills, Phys. Rev. 86 (1$52> 617. 15 INTERACTION O F ELECTRONS CH. I For thin foils there is good agreement with Landau's theory which give a width at half height = 3 6Q 1μ )ρ=p ^x( 2 ζM V . e ( 6) 1 Blunck and Leisegang calculate an increased width for very thin foils. Knop et al? have shown that the measured widths are below the calculated values because of the shell effect as mentioned above. 2. 33 ENERGY LOSS DUE TO BREMSSTRAHLUNG In addition to the energy loss resulting from the excitation and ionization processes discussed above, there is an energy loss due to the emission of bremsstrahlung, which 3 8the electron is accelerated in the Coulomb field of a nucleus.
The constants Si are called inner screening constants, and indicate the decrease in the effective nuclear charge caused by the presence of the other electrons in the atom. * Before about 1954** the 15 most accurate theoretical calculations were the numerical calculations of Hulme et al. who assumed only that each Κ electron is independent of the other, the problem involving just a fixed nucleus and one Κ electron, and the results being doubled to give the absorption in the Κ shell. 13 MeV, and the three atomic numbers Ζ = 26, 50, and 84 are given in Table 2.