By Rik Brydson
The ebook is worried with the idea, historical past, and sensible use of transmission electron microscopes with lens correctors that could right the results of round aberration. The publication additionally covers a comparability with aberration correction within the TEM and functions of analytical aberration corrected STEM in fabrics technology and biology. This e-book is vital for microscopists considering nanoscale and fabrics microanalysis in particular these utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy, and comparable analytical recommendations corresponding to electron diffraction x-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and electron strength loss spectroscopy (EELS).
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Extra info for Aberration-corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy
Rotationally symmetric electromagnetic lenses consist of a wound coil through which a current is passed. Electrons passing through the coil undergo a focusing effect which is dependent on the coil current and which can be increased by increasing the concentration of the resultant magnetic ﬁeld with a soft iron pole piece. 4). 4 A schematic (cut-away) diagram of a rotationally symmetric electron lens. 5 Schematic diagram of a quadrupole lens conﬁguration. which the iron alloy pole pieces are replaced by components containing rare-earth materials with a higher saturation magnetisation.
For an introduction to all of these, consult Goodhew et al. (2001). Here, we primarily focus on STEM. A ‘standard’ STEM offers a similar set of possibilities, but differently optimised and set up for mapping. In addition it offers annular dark field (ADF) imaging. 4. , 2001). Of particular interest to users of aberration-corrected instruments is high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. High-angle in this context signifies several tens of mrad, which is beyond the angle at which diffraction maxima (spots) of any significant intensity are found.
Auger electrons, on the other hand, require quite large spectrometers and because they are charged need sophisticated techniques to extract them from the microscope whilst preserving information about their energy. They are therefore rarely used for analysis in the TEM. Inner shell excitations are dominated by the structure of the single atom, so are capable of being treated theoretically using simple models. Egerton (1996) and also Brydson (2001) give substantial detail of appropriate theories, the prediction of cross-sections, and the appearance of edges in an experimental spectrum.